Archive for the ‘Futuristic Memory Dump Analysis’ Category

Vacuum Pages

Friday, July 22nd, 2011

It came to my attention that almost every huge or not so x64 kernel or complete memory dump is diagnosed with excessive pool usage. Sometimes it is too excessive like in the following example:

0: kd> !vm

*** Virtual Memory Usage ***
 Physical Memory:     8387414 (  33549656 Kb)
 Page File: \??\D:\pagefile.sys
   Current:  33856856 Kb  Free Space:  33855520 Kb
   Minimum:  33856856 Kb  Maximum:     46364420 Kb
 Available Pages:     7231844 (  28927376 Kb)
 ResAvail Pages:      7763458 (  31053832 Kb)
 Locked IO Pages:           0 (         0 Kb)
 Free System PTEs:   33556220 ( 134224880 Kb)
 Modified Pages:         2759 (     11036 Kb)
 Modified PF Pages:      2759 (     11036 Kb)
 NonPagedPool Usage: 650867425 (2603469700 Kb)
 NonPagedPoolNx Usage:  83715 (    334860 Kb)
 NonPagedPool Max:    6271754 (  25087016 Kb)
 ********** Excessive NonPaged Pool Usage *****
 PagedPool 0 Usage:     48923 (    195692 Kb)
 PagedPool 1 Usage:     39797 (    159188 Kb)
 PagedPool 2 Usage:     37412 (    149648 Kb)
 PagedPool 3 Usage:     37536 (    150144 Kb)
 PagedPool 4 Usage:     37453 (    149812 Kb)
 PagedPool Usage:      201121 (    804484 Kb)
 PagedPool Maximum:  33554432 ( 134217728 Kb)
 Session Commit:        15829 (     63316 Kb)
 Shared Commit:          7198 (     28792 Kb)
 Special Pool:              0 (         0 Kb)
 Shared Process:       158498 (    633992 Kb)
 PagedPool Commit:     201147 (    804588 Kb)
 Driver Commit:          5761 (     23044 Kb)
 Committed pages:     1126203 (   4504812 Kb)
 Commit limit:       16851145 (  67404580 Kb)

What we can see above is that the amount of used nonpaged pool is more than 2.5 Tb which is far less than the amount of physical memory + page file size (both in total do not exceed 100 Gb). So I conclude that Windows architects did the impossible and are able to create information (pages) from vacuum like matter can be created from vacuum fluctuations. Perhaps they are a step closer to implement some features from Cantor OS.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Debugging in 2021: Trends for the Next Decade (Part 1)

Friday, December 17th, 2010

As the new decade is approaching (2011-2020) we would like to make a few previews and predictions:

- Increased complexity of software will bring more methods from biological, social sciences and humanities in addition to existing methods of automated debugging and computer science techniques

- Focus on first fault software problem solving (when aspect)

- Focus on pattern-driven software problem solving (how aspect)

- Fusion of debugging and malware analysis into a unified structural and behavioral pattern framework

- Visual debugging, memory and software trace visualization techniques

- Software maintenance certification

- Focus on domain-driven troubleshooting and debugging tools as a service (debugware TaaS)

- Focus on security issues related to memory dumps and software traces

- New scripting languages and programming language extensions for debugging

- The maturation of the science of memory snapshots and software traces (memoretics)

Imagining is not not limited to the above and more to come and explain in the forthcoming parts.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Windows is waiting for the end of the century

Friday, August 27th, 2010

I was inspecting the list of timers in a complete memory dump and found that in x64 W2K8 R2 (it may be also in other versions) there is a timer set to fire for the end of our century 2001 - 2100:

1: kd> !timer
Dump system timers
    fffff80001c31b80   f690c4d5 0064364d [12/31/2099 23:00:00.510]  nt!ExpCenturyDpcRoutine (DPC @ fffff80001c31bc0)

Its disassembly shows at that time the following work item will be executed:

1: kd> uf nt!ExpCenturyDpcRoutine
fffff800`01ae81ab 488d0dae991400  lea     rcx,[nt!ExpCenturyWorkItem (fffff800`01c31b60)]

I don’t want to dig myself far into the details here :-) May be someone from MS provides some comments what we should expect at the turn of the century? What should I tell my children to expect if they still run the Windows OS?

PS. Long live the Windows OS! (my the most sincere comment; no pun intended).

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Modern Memory Dump and Software Trace Analysis: Volumes 1-3

Sunday, April 18th, 2010

OpenTask to offer first 3 volumes of Memory Dump Analysis Anthology in one set:

The set is available exclusively from OpenTask e-Commerce web site starting from June. Individual volumes are also available from Amazon, Barnes & Noble and other bookstores worldwide.

Product information:

  • Title: Modern Memory Dump and Software Trace Analysis: Volumes 1-3
  • Author: Dmitry Vostokov
  • Language: English
  • Product Dimensions: 22.86 x 15.24
  • Paperback: 1600 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (31 May 2010)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-99-5

Information about individual volumes:

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Crash, Core and Memory Dumps in Science Fiction and Fantasy (Part 1)

Sunday, January 10th, 2010

Being an aspiring SF delayed-writer I was curious about the usage of memory dump concept in science fiction. Here’s a selection of sentence fragments that give some picture (a few are from fiction not SF) and I plan to analyze it further in another part. Some phrases are funny for me but you decide which of them for yourself (I even ordered one fiction and two SF books from the list below):

A Fire Upon The Deep (Zones of Thought) by Vernor Vinge

“the environment programs will likely have a bizarre crash-atmosphere dump, thermal runaway, anything.”

A Nepenthean Solution by Rod Rogers

“Their computers started misbehaving very badly. Random data dumps, crashes, disk wipes, that type of thing.”

Sex, Drugs, & Rock & Roll! by Charles A Brobst

“it’s possible to dump bios and crash the systems.”

Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom by Cory Doctorow

“Just switch on guest access and I’ll core-dump it to you. It’s wild.”

Interface by Neal Stephenson and J. Frederick George

“We’re going to do a core dump on this whole night. Zeldo said ‘Analyze it’”

Champions of the Force (Star Wars: The Jedi Academy Trilogy, Volume 3) by Kevin J. Anderson

“Complete core dump of all the Maw’s backup computer files.”

The Mandalorian Armor (Star Wars: The Bounty Hunter Wars, Book 1) by K.W. Jeter

“he could do a core dump and take everything back to his own ship”

More Than Honor (Honor Harrington) by David Weber

“Rerouting, cross-connections, garbled text, crossed order-response loops, spontaneous memory core dumps … Nothing working the way it should.”

Futures from Nature by Henry Gee

“My toaster had a core dump and wouldn’t boot up”

Endgame: A Novel (Doom #4) by Dafydd ab Hugh and Brad Linaweaver

“The Data Pastiche did not give us sufficient information. We must study the core-dump.”

Newton’s Wake: A Space Opera by Ken MacLeod

“a big clue, but not definitive. So we took a core dump.”

Mindstar Rising by Peter F. Hamilton

“O’Donal fed the Trojan an activation code keyed to the core’s dump order.”

Worlds in Collision: Star Trek (Star Trek: the Original Series) and Memory Prime (Star Trek, No 42) by Judith Reeves-Stevens and Garfield Reeves-Stevens

“the interface team will commence an unscheduled emergency core dump as an essential test of the system’s backup integrity.”

Spinward Fringe Resurrection And Awakening by Randolph Lalonde

“I’m going to find one of the computer cores and dump you inside.”

Nothing Sacred: A Novel by Tom Flynn

“‘Ship’s thought engines are in core dump,’ Hinsin cried. ‘The Onesie’s probing them aggressively. They’re spewing information’”

X-Universe Volume One by Darren Astles and Steve Miller

“a core-dump and re-write of the Al algorithms”

Nshalain Troubles: The Return (Volume 3) by Bob Horton

“If necessary we could even do a core dump through a transposer link”

Second Chances by Susan Shwartz

“He could do a core dump in his sleep, but never had.”

Soul of the Algorithm by Norbert Weissinger

“By the way, we had a core dump on PIDs Two thirty- eight and Two thirty-nine.”

God Behind the Firewall by Anirban Ray

“The operating system kernel had crashed - it was a core dump. I wondered what kind of an operating system it was”

A Real Boy by Heather Breo

“unit was connected to a large processor so that a core dump could be performed. This would include all accrued memory.”

A Chip Called Wanda by J. L. Kerry

“the system computer until lie could crash it, initiating a core dump, in which the horrified system processor would frantically write important data to several files during its death throes.”

The Enemy Papers by Barry B Longyear

“began setting up the sequence to dump the memory cores.”

Chaos and Rage by Frank Tinsman

“I’m doing a core dump and it won’t even give me a status bar”

Alien Parable by Khezla Durr

“When the information came through it was like the core dump on a computer. It came through so fast”

ANIMA: a novel about Second Life by Dalian Hansen

“You have to go in for another complete core dump.”

Hammerjack by Marc D. Giller

“memory dump was in progress. The core was wiping itself clean”

HeadSpace by Paul Barrows

“eyes staring into the virtual gateway of the RAM dump core, head lolling involuntarily as his fingers worked the mechanism.”

Blood and Fire by David Gerrold

“We’ll dump a copy of the core into one of our transmitters and let them decode it”

Dragon Drive: A Comedia Mundana: Volume 1: The Finger of God by Wayne Richards

“by telephone lines, not yet, but we can send him core dumps via radio, over the comsat links, can’t we?”

The Armies of Memory (Thousand Cultures) by John Barnes

“Shan was dumping my short-term memory into his”

The Ghost Brigades by John Scalzi

“his sudden memory dump”

The Ultimate Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams

“He pulled out a small memory dump module”

Pandora’s Star by Peter F. Hamilton

“You left with him four days after your last memory dump in the Kirova Clinic’s secure store.”

Marque and Reprisal (Vatta’s War) by Elizabeth Moon

“It was bad they had to do a memory dump off my implant”

Star Strike (The Inheritance Trilogy, Book 1) by Ian Douglas

“They wouldn’t need to ask her questions or elicit her cooperation; all they’d need to do was pull a full memory dump.”

“‘Sarha, how’s the memory dump coming on?’ ‘No problems, Joshua. The bitek array is accepting’”

Spin State by Chris Moriarty

“a mere memory dump an interactive tutorial triggered by her entry into the memory palace”

Foundation and Chaos: The Second Foundation Trilogy (Foundation Trilogy Series) by Greg Bear

“With Daneel’s frequent memory dumps and adjustments,”

Sphere by Michael Crichton

“It’s got to be a memory dump from somewhere inside our own computer system.”

A Time to Be Born (Star Trek The Next Generation) by John Vornholt

“His memory dump was almost at the present day”

Undertow by Elizabeth Bear

“memory to dump yet and Security will download whatever’s in there”

Kiln People (The Kiln Books) by David Brin

“Irene here has been duplicating so heavily, taking full memory dumps from every ditto she makes, that she’s reached a limit”

Quarantine by Greg Egan

“it isn’t present in any of my stolen memory dumps.”

The Ship Who Searched (The Ship Series) by Anne McCaffrey and Mercedes Lackey

“She triggered memory-dump, and everything came over in compressed mode”

The Callahan Chronicals by Spider Robinson

“file memory dump, sending information in a block rather than bit by bit”

The Wellstone by Wil McCarthy

“And with the Palace Guard’s memory dump you’re the most famous of all”

Whole Wide World by Paul McAuley

“I can reboot and rebuild him from the last memory dump, but it’ll take a little while.”

Pashazade by Jon Courtenay Grimwood

“digiLux so old it had a separate flash unit and came minus a removable memory dump which was where Dr Dee came in”

The Great Book of Amber: The Complete Amber Chronicles, 1-10 (Chronicles of Amber) by Roger Zelazny

“You can’t dump its memory or kill its power from a remote terminal.”

The Best of All Possible Wars by Larry Niven

“they’ll follow it come core-collapse or memory dump;”

The Worthing Saga by Orson Scott Card

“We dump the memories back into your head as soon as you come out”

Playgrounds of the Mind by Larry Niven

“Signal for a memory dump, see what can be retrieved.”

Alien Taste (Ukiah Oregon, Book 1) by Wen Spencer

“To grow that much, the mouse would have to dump its memory storage.”

Firedance by Steven Barnes

“My last memory dump was before the raid”

Worldmakers: SF Adventures in Terraforming by Gardner Dozois

“I’d search memory dumps to find where souls might be kept”

Glasshouse by Charles Stross

“I emigrated to Zemlya right after my previous memory dump.”

Two to the Fifth (Xanth) by Piers Anthony

“It’s a real memory dump.”

Dreaming Down-Under by Jack Dann and Janeen Webb

“That’s what’s inhibiting the near-memory dump.”

Before the Storm (Star Wars: The Black Fleet Crisis, Book 1) by Michael P. Kube-Mcdowell

“Droids will dump their memory data under sensor-torture.”

WebMage (Ravirn, Book 1) by Kelly McCullough

“That’s probably the upload cycle, when it dumps its memory back to the server.”

Midnight at the Well of Souls by Jack L. Chalker

“You forgot to dump the computer memory when you closed up.”

Redrobe by Jon Courtenay Grimwood

“the one who purchased some kid to use as a memory dump”

X-Men - The Last Stand by Chris Claremont

“No sign whatsoever that been wounded If only he could dump the sense memories of those hurts as”

Metaplanetary: A Novel of Interplanetary Civil War by Tony Daniel

“Every day, to dump her memories in the form of a sentence or two”

The Purple Spacebunny (Volume 02) by Clarence E. Shellito II

“In computer terms, he was doing a memory dump and compressing the math in his mind to lock it”

This Place Only by Walter G. Klimczak

“The first stage included a memory splice. The second a partial data purge. A memory dump.”

The Worldwrights by Max Grant

“I was able to pick up some of their history while the memory dump went through me on its way to the manekine.”

Alien Revelation by Tony Ruggiero

“He thought of it as a memory dump and as a form of therapy.”

Genetic Suicide by James Cooper

“Yes, think of it as a selective memory dump.”

A Great Circle: The Mayfield Trilogy by Reynolds Price

“again as if to gouge one more memorial in this memory dump.”

Cross Purposes by Gary C. Gibson

“facsimile clones built in hurry up growth tanks. Electron-scripted memory dumps gave them something to think, A list personality and entertainment”

Shanghai Dream by Sahr Johnny

“The memory dump cuts to the front of the school.”

Elysian Fields by Drew Dale Daniel Bryenton

“which led to a biolab full of clone tanks and memory-dump modules.”

Cubicle Farm Fantasy: An Indian IT worker’s dream about escaping the rat race by Ranjit Sankar

“reading memory dumps and providing technical leadership to a bunch of bozos”

Infinity Plus by Keith Brooke and Nick Gevers

“A simula plus full memory dump will tie up most of my processing power.”

Sin’s Doorway and Other Ominous Entrances: The Selected Stories of Manly Wade Wellman (Volume 4) by Manly Wade Wellman

“consciously used me as a dump for his memories.”

ReBody by Clive Warner

“No other solution. EMP damages my network too. I can dump memory into magnetic stores, isolate all processors”

The Light by J Powers

“On the monitor screen flashed dumps of memory, neural net models, machine code, the innermost workings of the supercomputer operating system”

Fools’ Experiments by Edward M. Lerner

“I’m ready to stop reading these damn memory dumps. Let the little imps go back to it.”

Echoes of Earth by Sean Williams and Shane Dix

“to accept her final memory dump if she did.”

Fallen Host by Lyda Morehouse

“I had all my memories ready to dump, and I still couldn’t do it. Then the idea hit me”

LifeQuest: Dozens of Stories about Cryonics, Uploading, and other Transhuman Adventures by Fred Chamberlain, Linda Chamberlain, Thomas Donaldson, and Lee Corbin

“Map their memory centers, dump the data in a neuro-simulator and use artificial intelligence to to index topics”

Redemption Ark (Revelation Space) by Alastair Reynolds

“would make it so much easier if he could just dump his memories directly-but the other Conjoiner ’s neural blockades were secure.”

An Isaac Asimov Robot Mystery: Mirage (Isaac Asimov’s Robot Mystery) by Mark W. Tiedemann

“I want a memory dump set up, too-we need to download the RI for study.”

How Precious Was That While by Piers Anthony

“you don’t want to clutter your memory with them. For example, if that person was your sibling, you can dump that memory right there.”

Tangent by Robert G. Ferrell

“figure out some way of getting at least one full memory dump from her.”


“Yeah, yeah, yeah. All right, dump memory and we’ll scan it line by line.”

Death Match by Lincoln Child

“It appears to be a successful memory dump”

Presentations Plus by David A. Peoples

“first two minutes. Then we stand up we go to memory location ‘x,’ open our mouth and do a ‘memory dump’.”

Full Circle by Danielle Steel

“Dump the memory. And move on.”

MindFlossing: 100% Pure From Concentrate by Jakob Wahlberg

“Did you ever do a memory dump and debug?”

Love’s Illusions by Ceria Mackonvitz and Alina Ardeleanu Igna

“I need a brain dump. A memory dump. To clear my head up. Clear my head away.”

Harmonescape by Rick Leinheuser

“my jittery smile masking the memory dump going on behind my probing eyes. The jig was up.”

The Micah Files by Robert Pirie

“It sounds like you’re doing a memory dump. Robert continued assuring her of its relevancy.”

Journey Out From The Mundane Shell by Anthony Doyle

“we recognize a place in time, it has become a memory dump,”

Humour the Computer by Andrew J. Davison

“A memory dump follows.”

No Outward Sign by Bill Neugent

“A memory dump, in case you hit any self-destruct routines.”

Hazard 666: A New Meaning for Terror by Paul Landry

“see if he could preoccupy the robot so it would dump memory and not remember what it did.”

Biotechnology Is Murder: A Ben Candidi Mystery (Ben Candidi Mysteries) by Dirk Wyle

“Careful, you don’t want to dump the memory.”

Omaha by Caoimhghin Ó Catháin

“Let me dump its memory then you can tell me which numbers are drug related.”

Satan’s Touch by Forrest Carlyle

“Just a dump of system memory so I can debug.”

You Have to Be Careful in the Land of the Free by James Kelman

“I had a bus and a plane to catch, and memories to dump; memories to dump.”

The Bug by Ellen Ullman

“unconditional program death, producing no core file, no dump of the program’s memory state.”

Evening Song: Òran Feasgair by Randolph Waugh

“a law that would make a memory dump mandatory, you would have access to history in its entirety”

Storm Killer by Benjamin Blue

“the technician had commanded the computer to freeze its memory and not reuse any memory that had recently been used and released back to the system. The tech had done a copy dump of the entire memory and he’s now manually reviewing the contents of each piece of frozen storage”

remember to BLINK by Jason Heim

“I print out the memory dump, which uses up four reams of paper.”

Bystander by Maksim Gorky and Bernard G. Guerney

“Come, now, Tanya, search a bit in the dump of your memory.”

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Forthcoming Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 3

Saturday, September 26th, 2009

This is a revised, edited, cross-referenced and thematically organized volume of selected blog posts about crash dump analysis and debugging written in October 2008 - June 2009 for software engineers developing and maintaining products on Windows platforms, quality assurance engineers testing software on Windows platforms and technical support and escalation engineers dealing with complex software issues. The third volume features:

- 15 new crash dump analysis patterns
- 29 new pattern interaction case studies
- Trace analysis patterns
- Updated checklist
- Fully cross-referenced with Volume 1 and Volume 2
- New appendixes

Product information:

  • Title: Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 3
  • Author: Dmitry Vostokov
  • Language: English
  • Product Dimensions: 22.86 x 15.24
  • Paperback: 404 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (20 December 2009)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-43-8
  • Hardcover: 404 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (30 January 2010)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-44-5

Back cover features 3D computer memory visualization image.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Moving towards the Psi point

Thursday, August 6th, 2009

The hierarchy of Ψ1, …, Ψ8, …, Ψ16, …, Ψ32, …, Ψ64, …, …, …, ΨΨ numbers where the subscript denotes the number of bits a memory address can have, so Ψ32 and Ψ64 are memorillion and quadrimemorillion of memory dumps respectively. We only need to figure out the meaning of Ψ0 and ΨΨ. Perhaps there is some meaning in Dirac notation here: <Ψ0Ψ>. More on this later because I have to finish this week the book x64 Windows Debugging: Practical Foundations and write an errata file for the previous x86 version of the book series.

Note: Ψ is an M upside down.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Real-time Memory Visualization System

Thursday, July 23rd, 2009

Jamie Fenton has finally made available for beta testing fantastic memory visualization system HayWire & Barn Burner I use often for mining curious pictures from virtual memory space, like “cosmic rays“. Besides providing artistic pleasure, real-time natural memory visualization can have other applications including visual debugging. Looking forward to seeing more wonders in this area of research!

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

3D Memory Visualization

Sunday, July 19th, 2009

Finally I realized this morning that in addition to folding of a linear memory space into a 2D image in ParaView, the so called DLL List Landscape, we can also do a 3D folding too. I used the same dump file but this time the formula for coordinates is:


so for 1,746,853 byte file we have a 3D map of 75×75x75 points. Here are some beautiful images (click on them for a larger view) that I got and I write next parts of advanced memory visualization tutorial later next week.

Point view

Click to enlarge

Wireframe view

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Surface view

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Surface + edges view

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Volume view

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The chosen 3D folding shows varying 2D landscape in XY plane but almost constant landscape in YZ and XZ slices:

Click to enlarge

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More effects.

Contour view

Click to enlarge

Process DNA view

Click to enlarge

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Memory Dump Analysis Walks

Tuesday, March 24th, 2009

One day, last week, Dmitry was walking in Malahide Woods and thinking through his dangerous ideas about universal memory dumps and how to reconcile man-made PDB files with empirically discovered science files. Upon finding a problem resolution, Dmitry sat firmly on the ground and remained there happily for some time.

Click to enlarge 

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -   

My Dangerous Idea: Parameterized Science

Thursday, March 12th, 2009

Today I found this book in a local bookshop but didn’t buy it because I couldn’t find enough dangerous ideas in it: 

What Is Your Dangerous Idea?: Today’s Leading Thinkers on the Unthinkable

Buy from Amazon

So I give my own dangerous idea in return: in the future, all sciences, engineering and technology will be ultimately fused and concerned with universal memory dumps of empirical data where appropriate symbol files will be used for every science as we know today, these files called science files. The set of science files can be considered as a parameter, hence the name of this idea. In another words, there will be one Science of memory dump analysis and many sciences. All sciences will be finally unified.

Now the question. Would it be also possible to discover new sciences by finding a suitable set of science files corresponding to a collected dump of empirical data?

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Cantor Operating System (Part 1)

Wednesday, February 25th, 2009

Named after Georg Cantor CAN.TOR.OS brings computation from the distant future into today. The transfinite worldview and universe of tomorrow into the finite worldview and universe of today. Cantor OS drives transfinite computing and saves transfinite memory dumps. More on this in subsequent parts as I have to come back to finite memory dumps… One cautious note though: transfinite doesn’t mean absolute infinity, or God-like computation, the latter is the realm of Memory Religion

(∞) TOR is a new transfinite operation in addition to finite OR, AND or XOR 

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Transfinite Memory Dumps (Part 1)

Wednesday, February 25th, 2009

These dumps are larger than any finite memory dump and contain all of them inside (see the definition of a transfinite number). Think about them as a variant of the Library of Babel where all possible memory snapshots of your Windows or Linux PC are stored including Googol dumps. If you have some code then all possible code defects are there too. An interesting question then arises. If this dump is collected what kind of patterns we can see there? Are these patterns extrapolated infinite versions of finite patterns or there come new ones specific to transfinite computations? More on this in the next parts.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Googol Dump: A Computational SF Novel

Friday, November 7th, 2008

Science fiction books are among my favourite. I used to read lots of them (in Russian) during my school and university years. Also I started reading science fiction in English 8 years ago upon my arrival to Ireland and one of Asimov’s books about Foundation was my first English fiction book fully read from cover to cover. Now I want to write something fictional related to memory dump analysis and the notion of 3-dimensional memory dumps is a fascinating idea to exploit:

Googol Dump - a 3D memory dump where the 3rd dimension is a time arrow of computational 2D memory snapshots.

Note: one googol is 10100 and this number of bits is sufficient enough to record the full history of memory snapshots for 64-bit, 128-bit, 256-bit and even 1024-bit computers running thousands of years.

The novel is planned to be published next year (ISBN: 978-1906717322) and is written from the perspective of a debugger.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -