Archive for the ‘Hardware’ Category

General Abnormal Patterns of Structure and Behavior (Part 0)

Tuesday, January 29th, 2013

Memory Analysis Patterns (MAPs) including memory dump, malware, software trace (TAPs), and other patterns and pattern catalogs from Software Diagnostics Institute form the very rich semantic network. Now it is possible (by using a metaphorical bijection) to create a catalog of General Patterns of Abnormal Structure and Behaviour including software, hardware, biological behavior including animal (ethology) and human behavior, sociological and historical behavior including economics, business and finance, ethics and law, and even behavior of chemical and physical systems. Such “GAPs of Structure and Behavior” may include wait chains, spikes, deadlocks, etc. We provide more specific examples in the forthcoming parts. So we are a few steps closer to realization of my old dangerous idea of a parameterized science of universal memory dumps by the so called science files or might event a general diagnostics discipline.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Forthcoming 2nd edition of Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 1

Sunday, April 15th, 2012

After 4 years in print this bestselling title needs an update to address minor changes, include extra examples and reference additional research published in Volumes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

  • Title: Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 1
  • Author: Dmitry Vostokov
  • Publisher: OpenTask (Summer 2012)
  • Language: English
  • Product Dimensions: 22.86 x 15.24
  • Paperback: 800 pages
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-908043-35-1
  • Hardcover: 800 pages
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-908043-36-8

The cover for both paperback and hardcover titles will also have a matte finish. We used A Memory Window artwork for the back cover.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

A Blue Screen Watch

Wednesday, March 7th, 2012

The following watch came to my attention when I saw an ad at Zurich airport last week:

Tissot Seastar Blue Dial Mens Watch T0664071104700

Good complement to a digital one I have: Teaching binary to decimal conversion.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Debugging in 2021: Trends for the Next Decade (Part 1)

Friday, December 17th, 2010

As the new decade is approaching (2011-2020) we would like to make a few previews and predictions:

- Increased complexity of software will bring more methods from biological, social sciences and humanities in addition to existing methods of automated debugging and computer science techniques

- Focus on first fault software problem solving (when aspect)

- Focus on pattern-driven software problem solving (how aspect)

- Fusion of debugging and malware analysis into a unified structural and behavioral pattern framework

- Visual debugging, memory and software trace visualization techniques

- Software maintenance certification

- Focus on domain-driven troubleshooting and debugging tools as a service (debugware TaaS)

- Focus on security issues related to memory dumps and software traces

- New scripting languages and programming language extensions for debugging

- The maturation of the science of memory snapshots and software traces (memoretics)

Imagining is not not limited to the above and more to come and explain in the forthcoming parts.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Crash Dump Analysis Patterns (Part 53b)

Wednesday, July 14th, 2010

This is a specialization of Blocked Thread pattern where a thread is waiting for a hardware I/O response. For example, a frozen system initialization thread is waiting for a response from one of ACPI general register ports:

kd> kL 100
ChildEBP RetAddr 
f7a010bc f74c5a57 hal!READ_PORT_UCHAR+0×7
f7a010c8 f74c5ba4 ACPI!DefReadAcpiRegister+0xa1
f7a010d8 f74b4d78 ACPI!ACPIReadGpeStatusRegister+0×10
f7a010e4 f74b6334 ACPI!ACPIGpeIsEvent+0×14
f7a01100 8054157d ACPI!ACPIInterruptServiceRoutine+0×16
f7a01100 806d687d nt!KiInterruptDispatch+0×3d
f7a01194 804f9487 hal!HalEnableSystemInterrupt+0×79
f7a011d8 8056aac4 nt!KeConnectInterrupt+0×95
f7a011fc f74c987c nt!IoConnectInterrupt+0xf2
f7a0123c f74d13f0 ACPI!OSInterruptVector+0×76
f7a01250 f74b5781 ACPI!ACPIInitialize+0×154
f7a01284 f74cf824 ACPI!ACPIInitStartACPI+0×71
f7a012b0 f74b1e12 ACPI!ACPIRootIrpStartDevice+0xc0
f7a012e0 804ee129 ACPI!ACPIDispatchIrp+0×15a
f7a012f0 8058803b nt!IopfCallDriver+0×31
f7a0131c 805880b9 nt!IopSynchronousCall+0xb7
f7a01360 804f515c nt!IopStartDevice+0×4d
f7a0137c 80587769 nt!PipProcessStartPhase1+0×4e
f7a015d4 804f5823 nt!PipProcessDevNodeTree+0×1db
f7a01618 804f5ab3 nt!PipDeviceActionWorker+0xa3
f7a01630 8068afc6 nt!PipRequestDeviceAction+0×107
f7a01694 80687e48 nt!IopInitializeBootDrivers+0×376
f7a0183c 806862dd nt!IoInitSystem+0×712
f7a01dac 805c61e0 nt!Phase1Initialization+0×9b5
f7a01ddc 80541e02 nt!PspSystemThreadStartup+0×34
00000000 00000000 nt!KiThreadStartup+0×16

kd> r
eax=00000000 ebx=00000000 ecx=00000002 edx=0000100c esi=00000000 edi=867d8008
eip=806d664b esp=f7a010c0 ebp=f7a010c8 iopl=1         nv up ei pl zr na pe nc
cs=0008  ss=0010  ds=0023  es=0023  fs=0030  gs=0000             efl=00001246
806d664b c20400          ret     4

kd> ub eip
806d663f cc              int     3
806d6640 cc              int     3
806d6641 cc              int     3
806d6642 cc              int     3
806d6643 cc              int     3
806d6644 33c0            xor     eax,eax
806d6646 8b542404        mov     edx,dword ptr [esp+4]
806d664a ec              in      al,dx

kd> version
System Uptime: 0 days 0:03:42.140

kd> !thread
THREAD 867c63e8  Cid 0004.0008  Teb: 00000000 Win32Thread: 00000000 RUNNING on processor 0
IRP List:
    867df008: (0006,0190) Flags: 00000000  Mdl: 00000000
Not impersonating
DeviceMap                 e1005460
Owning Process            0       Image:         <Unknown>
Attached Process          867c6660       Image:         System
Wait Start TickCount      39             Ticks: 1839 (0:00:00:18.416)
Context Switch Count      4            
UserTime                  00:00:00.000
KernelTime                00:00:00.911
Start Address nt!Phase1Initialization (0x80685928)
Stack Init f7a02000 Current f7a014a4 Base f7a02000 Limit f79ff000 Call 0
Priority 31 BasePriority 8 PriorityDecrement 0 DecrementCount 0

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Welcome to Memory Dump Analysis Services!

Sunday, July 11th, 2010

Our future sponsor has been registered in Ireland and has its own independent website and logo:

More information will be available later this month.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Crash Dump Analysis Patterns (Part 98)

Saturday, May 8th, 2010

Sometimes when a high number of interrupts is reported but there are no signs of an interrupt storm or pending DPCs in a memory dump file it is useful to search for Hardware Activity in running and / or suspected threads. This can be done by examining execution residue left on a thread raw stack. Although found driver activity might not be related to reported problems it can be a useful start for driver elimination procedure for the general recommendation to check drivers for any updates. Here is an example of a thread raw stack with a network card doing “Scatter-Gather” DMA (more extensive example is coming in a separate pattern cooperation case study):

1: kd> !thread
THREAD f7732090 Cid 0000.0000 Teb: 00000000 Win32Thread: 00000000 RUNNING on processor 1
Not impersonating
Owning Process 8089db40 Image: Idle
Attached Process N/A Image: N/A
Wait Start TickCount 0 Ticks: 24437545 (4:10:03:56.640)
Context Switch Count 75624870
UserTime 00:00:00.000
KernelTime 4 Days 08:56:05.125
Stack Init f78b3000 Current f78b2d4c Base f78b3000 Limit f78b0000 Call 0
Priority 0 BasePriority 0 PriorityDecrement 0
ChildEBP RetAddr Args to Child
f3b30c5c 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 LiveKdD+0x1c07

1: kd> dds f78b0000 f78b3000
f78b0000 00000000
f78b0004 00000000
f78b0008 00000000
f78b000c 00000000
f78b0010 00000000
f78b2870 8b3de0d0
f78b2874 80887b75 nt!KiFlushTargetSingleTb+0xd
f78b2878 8b49032c
f78b287c 00000000
f78b2880 2d003202
f78b2884 00000000
f78b2888 00000000
f78b288c 2d003202
f78b2890 8b490302
f78b2894 f78b28a4
f78b2898 80a61456 hal!KfLowerIrql+0x62
f78b289c 2d00320a
f78b28a0 00000000
f78b28a4 8b3de0d0
f78b28a8 8b3e3730
f78b28ac 00341eb0
f78b28b0 f78b2918
f78b28b4 f63fbf78 NetworkAdapterA!SendWithScatterGather+0×318
f78b28b8 8b3de0d0
f78b28bc 8b341eb0
f78b28c0 f78b28d4
f78b28c4 00000000
f78b28c8 80a5f3c0 hal!KfAcquireSpinLock
f78b28cc 00000000
f78b28d0 8b3de0d0
f78b28d4 00000000
f78b28d8 8b3de0d0
f78b28dc 8b3eb730
f78b28e0 005a7340
f78b28e4 f78b294c
f78b28e8 f63fbf78 NetworkAdapterA!SendWithScatterGather+0×318
f78b28ec 8b3de0d0
f78b28f0 8a5a7340
f78b28f4 f78b2908
f78b28f8 00000000
f78b28fc 8b3de0d0
f78b2900 8b0f5158
f78b2904 001e2340
f78b2908 f78b2970
f78b290c f63fbf78 NetworkAdapterA!SendWithScatterGather+0×318
f78b2910 8b3de0d0
f78b2914 8b1e2340
f78b2918 f78b292c
f78b291c 00000000
f78b2920 80a5f3c0 hal!KfAcquireSpinLock
f78b2924 00000000
f78b2928 8b3de0d0
f78b292c 00000000
f78b2930 8b3eb700
f78b2934 00000000
f78b2938 00000000
f78b293c 00000000
f78b2940 00000000
f78b2944 00000000
f78b2948 00000000
f78b294c 0a446aa2
f78b2950 f78b29b8
f78b2954 8b0f5158
f78b2958 8b01ce10
f78b295c 00000001
f78b2960 8b3de0d0
f78b2964 80a5f302 hal!HalpPerfInterrupt+0×32
f78b2968 00000001
f78b296c 8b3de0d0
f78b2970 80a5f302 hal!HalpPerfInterrupt+0×32
f78b2974 8b3de302
f78b2978 f78b2988
f78b297c 80a61456 hal!KfLowerIrql+0×62
f78b2980 80a5f3c0 hal!KfAcquireSpinLock
f78b2984 8b3de302
f78b2988 f78b29a4
f78b298c 80a5f44b hal!KfReleaseSpinLock+0xb
f78b2990 f63fbbbf NetworkAdapterA!SendPackets+0×1b3
f78b2994 8a446a90
f78b2998 8b0e8ab0
f78b299c 00000000
f78b29a0 008b29d0
f78b29a4 f78b29bc
f78b29a8 f7163790 NDIS!ndisMProcessSGList+0×90
f78b29ac 8b3de388
f78b29b0 f78b29d0
f78b29b4 00000001
f78b29b8 00000000
f78b29bc f78b29e8
f78b29c0 80a60147 hal!HalBuildScatterGatherList+0×1c7
f78b29c4 8b0e89b0
f78b29c8 00000000
f78b29cc 8a44cde8
f78b29d0 8b1e2340
f78b29d4 8a446aa2
f78b29d8 8b026ca0
f78b29dc 8b1e2340
f78b29e0 8b0e8ab0
f78b29e4 8b0e8ab0
f78b29e8 f78b2a44
f78b29ec f716369f NDIS!ndisMAllocSGList+0xda
f78b29f0 8a44cde8
f78b29f4 8b0e89b0
f78b29f8 8a446a70
f78b29fc 00000000
f78b2a00 00000036
f78b2a04 f7163730 NDIS!ndisMProcessSGList
f78b2a08 8b1e2340
f78b2a0c 00000000
f78b2a10 8a44cde8
f78b2a14 00000218
f78b2a18 8b1e2308
f78b2a1c 00000103
f78b2a20 8b0e8ab0
f78b2a24 8a446a70
f78b2a28 8a44cde8
f78b2a2c 00000036
f78b2a30 8b0e8ab0
f78b2a34 00000036
f78b2a38 00000000
f78b2a3c 00000000
f78b2a40 029a9e02
f78b2a44 f78b2a60
f78b2a48 f71402ff NDIS!ndisMSendX+0×1dd
f78b2a4c 8b490310
f78b2a50 8b1e2340
f78b2a54 8a446a70
f78b2a58 8a9a9e02
f78b2a5c 8a9a9e02
f78b2a60 f78b2a88
f78b2a64 f546c923 tcpip!ARPSendData+0×1a9
f78b2a68 8b3e76c8
f78b2a6c 8b1e2340
f78b2a70 8a9a9ea8
f78b2a74 8b490310
f78b2a78 80888b00 nt!RtlBackoff+0×68
f78b2a7c 8a446a70
f78b2a80 8a446aa2
f78b2a84 8a446a70
f78b2a88 f78b2ab4
f78b2a8c f546ba5d tcpip!ARPTransmit+0×112
f78b2a90 8b490310
f78b2a94 8b1e2340
f78b2a98 8a9a9ea8
f78b2a9c 00000103
f78b2aa0 8a446a70
f78b2aa4 00000000
f78b2aa8 8b342398
f78b2aac 8a47e1f8
f78b2ab0 8b1e2340
f78b2ab4 f78b2bf0
f78b2ab8 f546c4fc tcpip!_IPTransmit+0×866
f78b2abc 8a9a9ebc
f78b2ac0 f78b2b02
f78b2ac4 00000001

We also do a sanity check for coincidental symbols:

1: kd> ub f63fbf78
f63fbf64 push    eax
f63fbf65 push    edi
f63fbf66 push    esi
f63fbf67 mov     dword ptr [ebp-44h],ecx
f63fbf6a mov     dword ptr [ebp-3Ch],ecx
f63fbf6d mov     dword ptr [ebp-34h],ecx
f63fbf70 mov     dword ptr [ebp-2Ch],ecx
f63fbf73 call    NetworkAdapterA!PacketRetrieveNicActions (f63facd2)

1: kd> ub f63fbbbf
f63fbb9c cmp     dword ptr [esi+0Ch],2
f63fbba0 jl      NetworkAdapterA!SendPackets+0x19e (f63fbbaa)
f63fbba2 mov     dword ptr [ecx+3818h],eax
f63fbba8 jmp     NetworkAdapterA!SendPackets+0x1a4 (f63fbbb0)
f63fbbaa mov     dword ptr [ecx+438h],eax
f63fbbb0 mov     dl,byte ptr [esi+2BCh]
f63fbbb6 mov     ecx,dword ptr [ebp+8]
f63fbbb9 call    dword ptr [NetworkAdapterA!_imp_KfReleaseSpinLock (f640ca18)]

1: kd> ub 80a60147
80a60130 je      hal!HalBuildScatterGatherList+0x1b9 (80a60139)
80a60132 mov     dword ptr [eax+4],1
80a60139 push    dword ptr [ebp+20h]
80a6013c push    eax
80a6013d mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]
80a60140 push    dword ptr [eax+14h]
80a60143 push    eax
80a60144 call    dword ptr [ebp+1Ch]

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Modern Memory Dump and Software Trace Analysis: Volumes 1-3

Sunday, April 18th, 2010

OpenTask to offer first 3 volumes of Memory Dump Analysis Anthology in one set:

The set is available exclusively from OpenTask e-Commerce web site starting from June. Individual volumes are also available from Amazon, Barnes & Noble and other bookstores worldwide.

Product information:

  • Title: Modern Memory Dump and Software Trace Analysis: Volumes 1-3
  • Author: Dmitry Vostokov
  • Language: English
  • Product Dimensions: 22.86 x 15.24
  • Paperback: 1600 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (31 May 2010)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-99-5

Information about individual volumes:

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Memory Dump and Software Trace Analysis Training and Seminars

Friday, April 9th, 2010

Plan to start providing training and seminars in my free time. If you are interested please answer these questions (you can either respond here in comments or use this form for private communication

  • Are you interested in on-site training, prefer traveling or attending webinars?
  • Are you interested in software trace analysis as well?
  • What specific topics are you interested in?
  • What training level (beginner, intermediate, advanced) are you interested in? (please provide an example, if possible)

Additional topics of expertise that can be integrated into training include Source Code Reading and Analysis, Debugging, Windows Architecture, Device Drivers, Troubleshooting Tools Design and Implementation, Multithreading, Deep Down C and C++, x86 and x64 Assembly Language Reading.

Looking forward to your responses. Any suggestions are welcome.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

The Korean Edition of Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 1

Monday, April 5th, 2010

I’m very pleased to announce that the Korean edition is available:

The book can be found on: 

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Mod N Reading Now (Part 1)

Sunday, March 21st, 2010

I originally intended to name this blog post as ”What I’m Reading Now” but then decided to show it as another satisfying example of my Mod N Reading technique. During my 7 years in memory dump analysis captivity I didn’t pay much attention to traditional synthetic software engineering (as opposed to analytical software defect research in computer memory) except occasionally writing some troubleshooting tools, describing DebugWare patterns in UML and devising RADII process. A few weeks ago I decided to brush up my engineering skills and read some books that accumulated in my library during last few years. Here is the list of them (debugging triptych of Windows Internals 5th Edition, Advanced Windows Debugging, and Advanced .NET Debugging are on my office table and I read them almost daily so I’m not including them in the list below).

Illustrated Mod N is actually Mod 7 technique where I cycle through 7 topics with 3 books for each topic. Ideally I aim to dedicate one topic per day every week but this is not always possible due to writing and publishing but I still do it in a Mod 7 way even if I skip some days. it usually takes me an hour or two to read carefully 5-10 pages from each of 3 topical books. Here is the current state of the reading round-robin queue (21 books) under my home computer desk:

Here are the topics and corresponding books (with links if you would like to buy them from Amazon):

Multithreading from Computer Science Perspective

Synchronization Algorithms and Concurrent Programming

Modern Multithreading : Implementing, Testing, and Debugging Multithreaded Java and C++/Pthreads/Win32 Programs

The Art of Multiprocessor Programming

Algorithms, Parsing

Algorithms in a Nutshell

Buy from Amazon

Flex & Bison: Text Processing Tools

The Algorithm Design Manual


Statistics in a Nutshell: A Desktop Quick Reference

Statistics Hacks: Tips & Tools for Measuring the World and Beating the Odds

Statistics, 4th Edition

C++, STL and Boost 

C++ in a Nutshell

Beyond the C++ Standard Library: An Introduction to Boost

C++ Cookbook

Security, Mac OS X

The Rootkit Arsenal: Escape and Evasion in the Dark Corners of the System

Buy from Amazon

The Mac Hacker’s Handbook

Security Engineering: A Guide to Building Dependable Distributed Systems

Code, Games

Programming Language Pragmatics, Third Edition

Game Engine Architecture

Code Complete: A Practical Handbook of Software Construction

Embedded and Real-Time Software Engineering

Designing Embedded Hardware

Bebop to the Boolean Boogie, Third Edition: An Unconventional Guide to Electronics

Software Engineering for Real-Time Systems

Buy from Amazon

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Fault context, wild code and hardware error: pattern cooperation

Tuesday, March 16th, 2010

I recently got a crying request from a reader of my blog to analyze the source of frequent bugchecks on a newly bought computer running Windows 7. I got 8 kernel minidumps with 5 different bugchecks. However, inspection of the default analysis revealed common Fault Context pattern of high resource consumption flight simulator processes in 6 minidumps. Most fault IPs were showing signs of Wild Code pattern and that most probably implicated Hardware Error (Looks like WinDbg suggests that MISALIGNED_IP implicates hardware). Here is the listing of relevant output fragments with attempts to disassemble code around IP (Instruction Pointer) to see if code make any sense (magenta color means the valid that should have been instead of misaligned code highlighted in red):

Windows 7 Kernel Version 7600 MP (4 procs) Free x86 compatible

Debug session time: Fri Jan  8 20:31:15.121 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 2:54:44.916

1: kd> !analyze -v


PROCESS_NAME:  FlightSimulatorA.exe


TRAP_FRAME:  807e6ea4 -- (.trap 0xffffffff807e6ea4)
ErrCode = 00000002
eax=872082a7 ebx=80028d5f ecx=b3348635 edx=87208638 esi=80280001 edi=000082a7
eip=8d613485 esp=807e6f18 ebp=6f248635 iopl=0  nv up ei ng nz na po nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010282
8d613485 897904          mov     dword ptr [ecx+4],edi ds:0023:b3348639=????????
Resetting default scope

807e6ea4 8d613485 badb0d00 87208638 82a7b334 nt!KiTrap0E+0x2cf
807e6f24 8d613d18 00000000 86358720 86358002 USBPORT!USBPORT_Xdpc_End+0xa6
807e6f48 82aa33b5 8635872c 86358002 00000000 USBPORT!USBPORT_Xdpc_Worker+0x173
807e6fa4 82aa3218 807c6120 87e7e950 00000000 nt!KiExecuteAllDpcs+0xf9
807e6ff4 82aa29dc 9f7e1ce4 00000000 00000000 nt!KiRetireDpcList+0xd5
807e6ff8 9f7e1ce4 00000000 00000000 00000000 nt!KiDispatchInterrupt+0x2c
WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.
82aa29dc 00000000 0000001a 00d6850f bb830000 0x9f7e1ce4

Debug session time: Fri Jan  8 20:42:16.395 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 0:10:22.815

2: kd> !analyze -v



TRAP_FRAME:  8d91cbc4 -- (.trap 0xffffffff8d91cbc4)
ErrCode = 00000002
eax=00000000 ebx=8d901a00 ecx=86570108 edx=86570108 esi=8d905884 edi=86573920
eip=911e5f5d esp=8d91cc38 ebp=8d91cc78 iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na po nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010202
911e5f5d ff              ???

Resetting default scope

IMAGE_NAME:  hardware

2: kd> u HDAudBus!HdaController::NotificationDpc+14d
911e5f5d ff              ???
911e5f5e ff              ???
911e5f5f ff6a00          jmp     fword ptr [edx]

911e5f62 6a00            push    0
911e5f64 6a00            push    0
911e5f66 68ff000000      push    0FFh
911e5f6b 6a03            push    3
911e5f6d 6a04            push    4

2: kd> uf HDAudBus!HdaController::NotificationDpc
911e5f45 8b45d8          mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp-28h]
911e5f48 c6405400        mov     byte ptr [eax+54h],0
911e5f4c 8b4dd8          mov     ecx,dword ptr [ebp-28h]
911e5f4f 83c148          add     ecx,48h
911e5f52 8a55e7          mov     dl,byte ptr [ebp-19h]
911e5f55 ff1510a01e91    call    dword ptr [HDAudBus!_imp_KfReleaseSpinLock (911ea010)]

911e5f5b e909ffffff      jmp     HDAudBus!HdaController::NotificationDpc+0x59 (911e5e69)

911e5f60 6a00            push    0
911e5f62 6a00            push    0
911e5f64 6a00            push    0
911e5f66 68ff000000      push    0FFh
911e5f6b 6a03            push    3
911e5f6d 6a04            push    4
911e5f6f 6a08            push    8
911e5f71 6a02            push    2
911e5f73 e818180000      call    HDAudBus!HDABusWmiLogETW (911e7790)
911e5f78 8b4df0          mov     ecx,dword ptr [ebp-10h]
911e5f7b 64890d00000000  mov     dword ptr fs:[0],ecx
911e5f82 59              pop     ecx
911e5f83 5f              pop     edi
911e5f84 5e              pop     esi
911e5f85 5b              pop     ebx
911e5f86 8be5            mov     esp,ebp
911e5f88 5d              pop     ebp
911e5f89 c21000          ret     10h

Debug session time: Fri Jan  8 21:32:04.096 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 0:49:10.517

1: kd> !analyze -v


Arg1: c000001d, The exception code that was not handled

EXCEPTION_CODE: (NTSTATUS) 0xc000001d - {EXCEPTION}  Illegal Instruction  An attempt was made to execute an illegal instruction.

TRAP_FRAME:  a99e3644 -- (.trap 0xffffffffa99e3644)
ErrCode = 00000000
eax=000000fe ebx=8556a2b0 ecx=754764cd edx=00000001 esi=858ad008 edi=858ad048
eip=82ada4c2 esp=a99e36b8 ebp=a99e3704 iopl=0 nv up ei ng nz na po nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010282
82ada4c2 02cd            add     cl,ch

PROCESS_NAME:  FlightSimulatorA.exe


82ada4c2 02cd            add     cl,ch

IMAGE_NAME:  hardware

1: kd> uf nt!IopCompleteRequest+3ac
82ada4bf 82680002        sub     byte ptr [eax],2
82ada4c3 cd82            int     82h

82ada4c5 50              push    eax
82ada4c6 ff75e0          push    dword ptr [ebp-20h]
82ada4c9 57              push    edi
82ada4ca e881830100      call    nt!KeInitializeApc (82af2850)
82ada4cf 6a02            push    2
82ada4d1 6a00            push    0
82ada4d3 ff7628          push    dword ptr [esi+28h]
82ada4d6 57              push    edi
82ada4d7 e8d2830100      call    nt!KeInsertQueueApc (82af28ae)
82ada4dc 33ff            xor     edi,edi
82ada4de eb5f            jmp     nt!IopCompleteRequest+0×429 (82ada53f)

1: kd> ub nt!IopCompleteRequest+3ac
                                  ^ Unable to find valid previous instruction for 'ub nt!IopCompleteRequest+3ac'

Debug session time: Sat Jan  9 07:45:24.155 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 2:09:39.576

0: kd> !analyze -v


Arg1: 0000000d, EXCEPTION_GP_FAULT

PROCESS_NAME:  FlightSimulatorA.exe


a24b3bd8 90f9e956 badb0d00 00000000 ddf1ba50 nt!KiSystemFatalException+0xf
a24b3cc4 90f93f2b 00000001 00000004 00000004 HDAudBus!HDABusWmiLogETW+0x1c6
a24b3d08 82a817ad 864a6280 86541000 a24b3d34 HDAudBus!HdaController::Isr+0x2b
a24b3d08 20c40d61 864a6280 86541000 a24b3d34 nt!KiInterruptDispatch+0x6d
WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.
1343f8ea 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 0x20c40d61

Debug session time: Sat Jan  9 08:52:03.454 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 1:05:54.249

0: kd> !analyze -v



PROCESS_NAME:  FlightSimulatorA.exe

TRAP_FRAME:  8078adf0 -- (.trap 0xffffffff8078adf0)
ErrCode = 00000002
eax=8632e2a6 ebx=00000000 ecx=880fb200 edx=00000118 esi=00000007 edi=8632e27c
eip=82a0c967 esp=8078ae64 ebp=c1e2baa0 iopl=0 nv up ei ng nz na pe nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010286
82a0c967 8901            mov     dword ptr [ecx],eax  ds:0023:880fb200=????????
Resetting default scope

8078adf0 82a0c967 badb0d00 00000118 82b5f466 nt!KiTrap0E+0x2cf
8078ae78 82a0cc16 880fb218 86379028 8632e260 hal!HalBuildScatterGatherList+0xf3
8078aea8 909b3e70 8651c6b0 86379028 8632e260 hal!HalGetScatterGatherList+0x26
8078aef4 909b3807 86379028 86379970 00000007 USBPORT!USBPORT_Core_iMapTransfer+0x21e
8078af24 909add18 86379028 86379970 86379002 USBPORT!USBPORT_Core_UsbMapDpc_Worker+0x1e3
8078af48 82aa73b5 8637997c 86379002 00000000 USBPORT!USBPORT_Xdpc_Worker+0x173
8078afa4 82aa7218 82b68d20 88139a98 00000000 nt!KiExecuteAllDpcs+0xf9
8078aff4 82aa69dc 9fd8cce4 00000000 00000000 nt!KiRetireDpcList+0xd5
8078aff8 9fd8cce4 00000000 00000000 00000000 nt!KiDispatchInterrupt+0x2c
WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.
82aa69dc 00000000 0000001a 00d6850f bb830000 0x9fd8cce4

Debug session time: Sat Jan  9 16:34:48.134 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 1:53:05.929

1: kd> !analyze -v



PROCESS_NAME:  firefox.exe

TRAP_FRAME:  bb92449c -- (.trap 0xffffffffbb92449c)
ErrCode = 00000000
eax=000005b4 ebx=0db19ba0 ecx=80000000 edx=00000001 esi=85fdff29 edi=bb924530
eip=8bc7e2c7 esp=bb924510 ebp=bb924638 iopl=0 nv up ei ng nz na po nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010282
8bc7e2c7 eb06            jmp     tcpip!TcpBeginTcbSend+0xa8b (8bc7e2cf)

Resetting default scope

bb92449c 8bc7e2c7 badb0d00 00000001 00000000 nt!KiTrap0E+0x2cf
bb924638 8bc7d2bf 87b39c78 00000000 00000001 tcpip!TcpBeginTcbSend+0xa83
bb92479c 8bc814b5 87b39c78 00000000 00000001 tcpip!TcpTcbSend+0x426
bb9247bc 8bc7f349 87b39c78 87fa6c38 00000000 tcpip!TcpEnqueueTcbSendOlmNotifySendComplete+0x157
bb92481c 8bc81846 87b39c78 bb92491c 00000000 tcpip!TcpEnqueueTcbSend+0x3ca
bb924838 82a95f8a bb9248c8 96d9c9d2 00000000 tcpip!TcpTlConnectionSendCalloutRoutine+0x17
bb9248a0 8bc80a0b 8bc8182f bb9248c8 00000000 nt!KeExpandKernelStackAndCalloutEx+0x132
bb9248d8 908b5d27 87b39c01 bb924900 85572e18 tcpip!TcpTlConnectionSend+0x73
bb92493c 908bb2e3 00d4f1e0 85572e18 85572eac tdx!TdxSendConnection+0x1d7
bb924958 82a424bc 86236b80 85572e18 862389c0 tdx!TdxTdiDispatchInternalDeviceControl+0x115
bb924970 908d65ca 86d0e0c8 00000000 86238990 nt!IofCallDriver+0x63
WARNING: Stack unwind information not available. Following frames may be wrong.
bb9249c8 908d17f8 86238990 85572e18 85572ed0 aswTdi+0x55ca
bb924a28 82a424bc 862388d8 85572e18 8623f0e8 aswTdi+0x7f8
bb924a40 90935310 8623f030 82a424bc 8623f030 nt!IofCallDriver+0x63
bb924a60 90900a0e 2b1c89ba bb924b20 00000001 aswRdr+0x310
bb924ab0 908ed542 00000000 908ed542 87a5c530 afd!AfdFastConnectionSend+0x2a6
bb924c28 82c608f7 87ec6701 00000001 02b5f8cc afd!AfdFastIoDeviceControl+0x53d
bb924cd0 82c634ac 85a89c10 0000024c 00000000 nt!IopXxxControlFile+0x2d0
bb924d04 82a4942a 00000240 0000024c 00000000 nt!NtDeviceIoControlFile+0x2a
bb924d04 774464f4 00000240 0000024c 00000000 nt!KiFastCallEntry+0x12a
02b5f920 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 0x774464f4

1: kd> u 8bc7e2cf
8bc7e2cf 83bd18ffffff00  cmp     dword ptr [ebp-0E8h],0

8bc7e2d6 0f84d1000000    je      tcpip!TcpBeginTcbSend+0xb68 (8bc7e3ad)
8bc7e2dc 8d85f8feffff    lea     eax,[ebp-108h]
8bc7e2e2 3bf8            cmp     edi,eax
8bc7e2e4 0f85c3000000    jne     tcpip!TcpBeginTcbSend+0xb68 (8bc7e3ad)
8bc7e2ea 83bd54ffffff00  cmp     dword ptr [ebp-0ACh],0
8bc7e2f1 0f84b6000000    je      tcpip!TcpBeginTcbSend+0xb68 (8bc7e3ad)
8bc7e2f7 f7433c00002000  test    dword ptr [ebx+3Ch],200000h

Debug session time: Sat Jan  9 19:42:50.817 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 3:07:23.612

3: kd> !analyze -v

USB Driver bugcheck, first parameter is USB bugcheck code.
Arg1: 00000006, USBBUGCODE_BAD_SIGNATURE An Internal data structure (object)
 has been corrupted.
Arg2: 864b20e0, Object address
Arg3: 4f444648, Signature that was expected
Arg4: 00000000



8d952b8c 90fa1025 000000fe 00000006 864b20e0 nt!KeBugCheckEx+0x1e
8d952ba8 90fa6672 864b20e0 4f444668 4f444648 USBPORT!USBPORT_AssertSig+0x20
8d952bc8 90fa4553 864b2028 85c57d10 82a8b334 USBPORT!USBPORT_FlushAdapterDBs+0x1b
8d952c00 90fa5178 00000001 856e3ab8 87fb98c0 USBPORT!USBPORT_Core_iCompleteDoneTransfer+0x3cb
8d952c2c 90fa89af 864b2028 864b20f0 864b2a98 USBPORT!USBPORT_Core_iIrpCsqCompleteDoneTransfer+0x33b
8d952c54 90fa2d18 864b2028 864b2a98 864b2002 USBPORT!USBPORT_Core_UsbIocDpc_Worker+0xbc
8d952c78 82ab33b5 864b2aa4 864b2002 00000000 USBPORT!USBPORT_Xdpc_Worker+0x173
8d952cd4 82ab3218 8d936120 8d93b800 00000000 nt!KiExecuteAllDpcs+0xf9
8d952d20 82ab3038 00000000 0000000e 00000000 nt!KiRetireDpcList+0xd5
8d952d24 00000000 0000000e 00000000 00000000 nt!KiIdleLoop+0x38

Debug session time: Sun Jan 10 04:06:19.856 2010 (GMT+0)
System Uptime: 0 days 0:23:05.651

1: kd> !analyze -v


PROCESS_NAME:  FlightSimulatorB.exe


TRAP_FRAME:  a127fa30 -- (.trap 0xffffffffa127fa30)
ErrCode = 00000000
eax=a127fec8 ebx=00000000 ecx=00000011 edx=86488ba0 esi=86488b78 edi=00000000
eip=8b83b87d esp=a127faa4 ebp=a127fab8 iopl=0 nv up ei ng nz na po nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010282
8b83b87d 0885c974498b    or      byte ptr mcupdate_GenuineIntel!_NULL_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR <PERF> (mcupdate_GenuineIntel+0×764c9) (8b4974c9)[ebp],al ss:0010:2c716f81=??

Resetting default scope

8b83b87d 0885c974498b    or      byte ptr mcupdate_GenuineIntel!_NULL_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR <PERF> (mcupdate_GenuineIntel+0x764c9) (8b4974c9)[ebp],al

a127fa18 82a8d5f8 00000000 8b497414 00000000 nt!MmAccessFault+0x106
a127fa18 8b83b87d 00000000 8b497414 00000000 nt!KiTrap0E+0xdc
a127fab8 8b834340 86488ba4 86e5e458 00000000 fltmgr!TreeFindNodeOrParent+0x9
a127faf8 8b83440a 86488b78 86e5e458 00000000 fltmgr!GetContextFromStreamList+0x50
a127fb14 8b86c6da 86e5e458 86488b78 a127fb40 fltmgr!FltGetStreamContext+0x34
a127fb44 8b866b35 87f30718 a127fb98 a127fba8 fileinfo!FIStreamGet+0x36
a127fbac 8b833aeb 87f30718 a127fbcc a127fbf8 fileinfo!FIPreReadWriteCallback+0xf1
a127fc18 8b83617b a127fc54 85cfd738 a127fcac fltmgr!FltpPerformPreCallbacks+0x34d
a127fc30 8b848c37 0027fc54 8b848ad4 00000000 fltmgr!FltpPassThroughFastIo+0x3d
a127fc74 82c96b32 85cfd738 a127fcb4 00001000 fltmgr!FltpFastIoRead+0x163
a127fd08 82a8a42a 86e484c0 00000000 00000000 nt!NtReadFile+0x2d5
a127fd08 775864f4 86e484c0 00000000 00000000 nt!KiFastCallEntry+0x12a
WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.
0202fc8c 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 0x775864f4

IMAGE_NAME:  hardware

1: kd> u fltmgr!TreeFindNodeOrParent
8b83b874 8bff            mov     edi,edi
8b83b876 55              push    ebp
8b83b877 8bec            mov     ebp,esp
8b83b879 8b4508          mov     eax,dword ptr [ebp+8]
8b83b87c 8b08            mov     ecx,dword ptr [eax]

8b83b87e 85c9            test    ecx,ecx
8b83b880 7449            je      fltmgr!TreeFindNodeOrParent+0×57 (8b83b8cb)
8b83b882 8b5510          mov     edx,dword ptr [ebp+10h]

1: kd> ub 8b834340
8b834327 8bcb            mov     ecx,ebx
8b834329 ff15a4d0838b    call    dword ptr [fltmgr!_imp_ExfAcquirePushLockShared (8b83d0a4)]
8b83432f 33db            xor     ebx,ebx
8b834331 895dfc          mov     dword ptr [ebp-4],ebx
8b834334 ff7510          push    dword ptr [ebp+10h]
8b834337 ff750c          push    dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]
8b83433a 57              push    edi
8b83433b e896750000      call    fltmgr!TreeLookup (8b83b8d6)

1: kd> uf 8b83b8d6
8b83b8d6 8bff            mov     edi,edi
8b83b8d8 55              push    ebp
8b83b8d9 8bec            mov     ebp,esp
8b83b8db 8d4510          lea     eax,[ebp+10h]
8b83b8de 50              push    eax
8b83b8df ff7510          push    dword ptr [ebp+10h]
8b83b8e2 ff750c          push    dword ptr [ebp+0Ch]
8b83b8e5 ff7508          push    dword ptr [ebp+8]
8b83b8e8 e887ffffff      call    fltmgr!TreeFindNodeOrParent (8b83b874)
8b83b8ed 48              dec     eax
8b83b8ee f7d8            neg     eax
8b83b8f0 1bc0            sbb     eax,eax
8b83b8f2 f7d0            not     eax
8b83b8f4 234510          and     eax,dword ptr [ebp+10h]
8b83b8f7 5d              pop     ebp
8b83b8f8 c20c00          ret     0Ch

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Forthcoming Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 4

Thursday, February 11th, 2010

This is a revised, edited, cross-referenced and thematically organized volume of selected blog posts about crash dump analysis and debugging written in July 2009 - January 2010 for software engineers developing and maintaining products on Windows platforms, quality assurance engineers testing software on Windows platforms and technical support and escalation engineers dealing with complex software issues. The fourth volume features:

- 13 new crash dump analysis patterns
- 13 new pattern interaction case studies
- 10 new trace analysis patterns
- 6 new Debugware patterns and case study
- Workaround patterns
- Updated checklist
- Fully cross-referenced with Volume 1, Volume 2 and Volume 3
- New appendixes

Product information:

  • Title: Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 4
  • Author: Dmitry Vostokov
  • Language: English
  • Product Dimensions: 22.86 x 15.24
  • Paperback: 410 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (30 March 2010)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-86-5
  • Hardcover: 410 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (30 April 2010)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-87-2

Back cover features memory space art image: Internal Process Combustion.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ + -

Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 3

Sunday, December 20th, 2009

“Memory dumps are facts.”

I’m very excited to announce that Volume 3 is available in paperback, hardcover and digital editions:

Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 3

Table of Contents

In two weeks paperback edition should also appear on Amazon and other bookstores. Amazon hardcover edition is planned to be available in January 2010.

The amount of information was so voluminous that I had to split the originally planned volume into two. Volume 4 should appear by the middle of February together with Color Supplement for Volumes 1-4. 

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Crash Dump Analysis Patterns (Part 65b)

Monday, November 16th, 2009

This is a hardware counterpart of Not My Version pattern. Some problems manifest themselves on different hardware not used at the time of the product testing. In such cases we can look at kernel and complete memory dumps, extract hardware information using !sysinfo command and compare differences. This is similar to Virtualized System pattern and might provide troubleshooting hints. One example, I have seen in the past, involved a graphics intensive application that relied heavily upon hardware acceleration features. It was tested with certain processors and chipsets but after a few years failed to work on one computer despite the same OS image and drivers. !sysinfo command revealed significant hardware differences: the failing client computer was newer faster multiprocessor machine.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Forthcoming Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 3

Saturday, September 26th, 2009

This is a revised, edited, cross-referenced and thematically organized volume of selected blog posts about crash dump analysis and debugging written in October 2008 - June 2009 for software engineers developing and maintaining products on Windows platforms, quality assurance engineers testing software on Windows platforms and technical support and escalation engineers dealing with complex software issues. The third volume features:

- 15 new crash dump analysis patterns
- 29 new pattern interaction case studies
- Trace analysis patterns
- Updated checklist
- Fully cross-referenced with Volume 1 and Volume 2
- New appendixes

Product information:

  • Title: Memory Dump Analysis Anthology, Volume 3
  • Author: Dmitry Vostokov
  • Language: English
  • Product Dimensions: 22.86 x 15.24
  • Paperback: 404 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (20 December 2009)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-43-8
  • Hardcover: 404 pages
  • Publisher: Opentask (30 January 2010)
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-906717-44-5

Back cover features 3D computer memory visualization image.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Laptop Reviews

Saturday, September 26th, 2009 accepts hardware such as laptops for reviewing in relation to their suitability for extreme debugging, virtualization, trace analysis, computer forensics, memory dump analysis, visualization and auralization. If you work for a H/W company like HP, Apple, Dell, Acer, Sony or any other respectable manufacturer please don’t hesitate to forward this post to your management: it could be your company brand or laptop model that debugging and software technical support community chooses next time of upgrade or for T&D / R&D! H/W reviews will be posted on the main portal page which currently has an audience of more than 200,000 unique visitors per year from more than 30,000 network locations (*).

If your company is interested please don’t hesitate to use this contact form:

(*) From Google Analytics report.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Breakfast with Intel Manuals (1st)

Wednesday, July 15th, 2009

I’ve decided to spend a few hours every week reading and / or re-reading various Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures manuals to keep myself informed in differences between x64 and x86, revive Asmpedia and perhaps even apply gained insights to memory dump analysis. Today I read 2.1 - 2.2.5 sections from Volume 1 and here’s a rough picture of processor families that I assembled after reading:


Most of these models and their hardware architecture are discussed in this popular book that I read more than a year ago and still recommend without hesitation:

Inside the Machine 

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

Does the size of hardware matter?

Saturday, June 20th, 2009

I was in McDonald’s today with my daughter. This time they popularize Einstein, giving his stature in happy meal packs, telling that the size of his brain was the same as mine. My brain continued to work after meal and I finally understood that the right memory dump is what really matters. Your computer may have 1Tb of memory but if you didn’t get the right dump at the right moment you wasted your time.

- Dmitry Vostokov @

Summer Offensive on a Publishing Front

Friday, May 15th, 2009

OpenTask, iterative and incremental publisher, plans to release a guide for general computer users explaining crashes and hangs on personal computers ranging from mobile phones, netbooks and laptops to desktops and servers:

My Computer Crashes and Freezes: A Non-technical Guide to Software and Hardware Errors (ISBN: 978-19067171704)

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -