Crash Dump Analysis Patterns (Part 70)

Sometimes compilers optimize code by replacing function calls with their bodies. This procedure is called function inlining and functions themselves are called inline. On one platform we can see the real function call on the stack trace but on another platform or product version we only see the same problem instruction. Fortunately the rest of stack trace should be the same. Therefore when comparing Stack Traces we shouldn’t pay attention only to the top function call. This pattern is called Inline Function Optimization.

It is frequently seen when threads crash while copying or moving memory. Consider this stack trace:

0: kd> kL
ChildEBP RetAddr 
f22efaf4 f279ec3d driver!QueueValue+0x26b
f22efb30 8081dcdf driver!BufferAppendData+0x35f
f22efc7c 808f47b7 nt!IofCallDriver+0x45
f22efc90 808f24ee nt!IopSynchronousServiceTail+0x10b
f22efd38 80888c7c nt!NtWriteFile+0x65a
f22efd38 7c82ed54 nt!KiFastCallEntry+0xfc

When looking at rep movs instruction we might suspect that QueueValue was copying memory:

0: kd> r
eax=00000640 ebx=89b23000 ecx=00000190 edx=89b3c828 esi=02124220 edi=e2108f58
eip=f279c797 esp=f22efadc ebp=f22efaf4 iopl=0 nv up ei pl nz na pe nc
cs=0008 ss=0010 ds=0023 es=0023 fs=0030 gs=0000 efl=00010206
f279c797 f3a5 rep movs dword ptr es:[edi],dword ptr [esi] es:0023:e2108f58=dfefbecf ds:0023:02124220=????????

On x64 bit platform the same driver had the similar stack trace but with memcpy at its top:

fffffadf`8955f4a8 fffffadf`8d1bef46 driver!memcpy+0x1c0
fffffadf`8955f4b0 fffffadf`8d1c15c9 driver!QueueValue+0x2fe
fffffadf`8955f550 fffff800`01273ed9 driver!BufferAppendData+0x481

We also see how QueueValue+0×2fe and QueueValue+0×26b are close. In fact the source code for the driver calls RtlCopyMemory function only once and it is defined as memcpy in wdm.h. The latter function is also exported from nt:

0: kd> x nt!
80881780 nt!memcpy = <no type information>

but usually can be found in any driver that links it from C runtime library, for example, on my x64 Windows:

1: kd> x nt!memcpy
fffff800`01c464e0 nt!memcpy = <no type information>

1: kd> x srv!memcpy
fffff980`0eafdf20 srv!memcpy = <no type information>

1: kd> x win32k!memcpy
fffff960`000c1b40 win32k!memcpy = <no type information>

Therefore we see that when compiling for x86 platform Visual C++ compiler decided to inline memcpy code but AMD compiler on x64 platform didn’t inline it. The overall stack trace without offsets is very similar and we can suppose that the problem was identical.

- Dmitry Vostokov @ -

2 Responses to “Crash Dump Analysis Patterns (Part 70)”

  1. Crash Dump Analysis » Blog Archive » NULL data pointer, stack trace, inline function optimization and platformorphic fault: pattern cooperation Says:

    […] We also don’t see memcpy call but if we look at the faulted instruction we suspect it was inlined memcpy […]

  2. Crash Dump Analysis » Blog Archive » Crash Dump Analysis Patterns (Part 96) Says:

    […] we disassemble it we see an inlined string or memory copy, perhaps wcscpy […]

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